"Boil water in a bowl of Paper"

"Boil water in a bowl of Paper"
I. Objective
Through this lab students are expected to master the process skills and scientific method.
II. Basic Theory
Carin and Sund (Mulyasa, 2005: 108) argued that the "inquiry is the process of investigating a problem." According Collete and Chiapepetta (1994: 86) "inquiry is the process of finding out by searching for knowledge and understanding". In line with this, Kuslan and Stone (1969: 138) argued that the "Inquiry That teaching as teaching by which Teachers and children study scientific phenomena with the approach and the spirit of the scientist".
The definitions given The National Science Education Standards (Colburn, 2000: 42) about the inquiry are: Scientific inquiry refers to the diverse Ways in the which scientists study the natural world and propose explanation based on the evidence derived from Their Work. Also Inquiry refers to the activities of students in the which They develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as understanding of how scientists study the natural world.
Scientific inquiry is defined as a systematic and investigate activity with purpose of uncovering and describing relationships among objects and events. It is characterized by thee use of orderly, repeatable processes, reduction of the object of investigation to its most simple scale and form, and the use of logical frameworks for explanation and prediction. The operations of inquiry include observing, questioning, experimenting, comparing, inferring, generalizing, communicating, applying and others.
Some authors believe that, in the secondary schools particularly, inquiry teaching is a way of developing the mental processes of curiosity and investigation so that students learn how information is obtained.
Inquiry is the process of defining and investigating problems, formulating hypotheses, designing experiments, gathering data, and drawing conclusions about problems. Inquiry processes include :
Ø Originating problems
Ø Formulating hypotheses
Ø Designing investigate approaches
Ø Testing out ideas (e.g., conducting experiments)
Ø Synthesizing knowledge
Ø Developing certain attitudes (e.g., objective, curious, open-mided, desires and respects theoretical models, responsible, suspends judgment until sufficient data is obtained, checks his results).(Leslie W. Trowbridge, 1990: 208-209)
The learning process is seen as a stimulus that can challenge students to perform learning activities. Sund and Trowbridge (Mulyasa, 2005: 109) put forward three kinds of inquiry approach as follows:
a. Guided Inquiry (guided inquiry); learners acquire in accordance with the ddibutuhkan guidelines. These guidelines are usually in the form of guiding questions.
b. Free Inquiry (free inquiry), on free inquiry learners conduct their own research as a scientist.
c. Free Inquiry is modified (modified free inquiry), the inquiry is the teacher gives the problem or problems and then students were asked to solve these problems through observation, exploration, and research procedures.
Syarat benda bisa terbakar adalah (1) ada oksigen ;(2) ada bahan bakar; (3) ada sumber panas/api; (4)tercapainya titik bakar pada sebuah benda. Jika satu dari ke empat syarat tersebut tidak ada, maka sebuah benda tidak akan bisa terbakar. Pada kasus air di dalam kantong plastik. Semua syarat, oksigen, bahan bakar, dan sumber api sudah tersedia, namun titik bakar plastik tidak bisa tercapai karena “terserap” oleh air yang ada di dalam kantong plastik. (taken from http://lanibin.millahibrahim.net/?p=196)
III. Tools and Materials
a. Paper Padalarang white f. Thermometer
b. Glue paper g. Gauze wire
c. Ruler h. Tripod feets
d. Scissors i. Burner
e. Stative
IV. Work Steps
a. Make a bowl-shaped paper cube with size according to the consensus group
b. Make a tabulation of data to record the experimental data
c. Write the hypothesis of the experiment your group about this experiment.
d. Arrange the tools to experiment as the following picture:
e. Observe the symptoms that arise during the experiment!
f. Record observations in tables that have been made (draft tabulation of your group).
g. Summarize the results of that experiment!
V. Discussion
Through this lab students are expected the students can master the process skills and scientific method. to master the skills of process and scientific method. The experiment was conducted with the scientific method, which consists of formulating the problem, seeking theory, principles, and research results related to the experiment, formulate a hypothesis/ paradigm, test the hypothesis by observation or experiment, draw conclusions from the discussion of hypotheses and experimental results. The first was to determine the problem, the problem in accordance with the title of which is whether the water to boil in a paper cup. Then, look for the theory, principles, and research results related to the experiment, his theory is a condition of burning objects there should be oxygen, fuel, sources of ignition, and fuel the achievement of point objects. When cases of water in the paper, point fuel requirement is not achieved because the water absorbed in the paper, as a result of fire does not burn the paper. After searching the theory, the hypothesis that the water can get boiled with paper cups. The next step, testing the hypothesis by observation or experiment, in this experiment measures the work done is to first make the two bowl-shaped paper cube with two sizes, namely 9.5 cm x 8.5 cm x 4.4 cm and 12.3 cm x 10.3 cm x 6.2 cm, and then assemble the appliance in accordance with the picture above, fill two paper bowls with a volume of 200 ml of water, put a bowl of water on a gauze wire and measure the initial temperature of water before boiling, turn on the burner to boil water, and take temperature data every 1 minute until 20 minute. The product can be seen in the table below
The size of cube (cm3)
Start temperature(˚C)
The temperature of minute
1. 33
2. 38
3. 42
4. 44
5. 48
6. 53
7. 55
8. 54
9. 57
10. 57
11. 59
12. 59
13. 60
14. 59
15. 60
16. 62
17. 61
18. 59
19. 56
20. 54
1. 35
2. 39
3. 44
4. 49
5. 52
6. 53
7. 53
8. 54
9. 56
10. 56
11. 53
12. 53
13. 53
14. 53
15. 52
16. 49
17. 49
18. 47
19. 46
20. 45.5
Berdasarkan data dari tabel di atas dapat dijelaskan bahwa pada kubus I dengan ukuran 13.3X10,3X6,2 cm3 temperatur awalnya 26oC setelah dipanaskan temperatur yang dihasilkan pada menit ke-20 menunjukkan 540C. Kertas padalarang yang digunakan dalam praktkum tidak terbakar dan muncul gelembung-gelembung air mulai pada menit ke-4 dan air mulai merembes dari awal pemanasan. Air mulai menetes pada menit ke-14 dikarenakan seratnya tidak mampu lagi menahan air.
Untuk kubus II dengan ukuran 10,5X10,5X5 cm3 dengan temperatur awal sebesar 260C setelah dipanaskan selama 20 menit temperatur maksimal yang dicapai sebesar 560C, kertas padalarang juga tidak terbakar, air merembes mulai dari awal pemanasan muncul gelembung air pada menit ke-4 dan air menetes pada menit ke-14.
From the data above, the maximum temperature that can be achieved is 60 oC to 53 oC and the first cube to cube into two, then it can be concluded that increasing the surface area of a paper bowl, the longer the water is boiling. The final step is to draw conclusions from the discussion of hypotheses and experimental results, the first hypothesis is formulated, it was a paper bowl that is used to boil water media can not be proved, because the temperature reached only up to 62 oC only. And to boil water, the temperature must reach 100 oC. But the hypothesis that the two can not be proved from the burning of paper bowls.

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